Neurological disorders are diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system including epilepsy, Alzheimer disease and other dementias, Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, and other myelin disorders, but also cerebrovascular diseases like stroke, neuroinfections, brain tumors and traumatic injuries of the brain or of the spinal cord. These disorders are major clinical problems and no satisfactory treatment is available. Despite the different origins of these disorders, many of the underlying damage mechanisms are similar in these conditions, it is expected that a neuroprotective agent could be efficient in several disorders.
Traumatic spinal cord injury affects 250,000 to 500,000 people a year worldwide according to WHO, Symptoms of spinal cord injury depend on the severity of injury and its location. They may include partial or complete loss of sensory function or motor control of arms, legs and/or body. Whereas no approved treatment is currently available, NEURONAX is developing a first-in class drug, NX210, in order to promote regeneration of nerve fibers and to support functional improvement.
Alzheimer’s disease is the most common neurodegenerative disease. Around 46 million people are currently living with Alzheimer’s or a related dementia worldwide, whereas this number is estimated to increase to more than 130 million by 2050. Alzheimer’s disease causes progressive degeneration of the brain and is clinically characterized by cognitive impairment and dementia. Alzheimer’s disease neuropathological hallmarks are senile plaques, which contain deposits of β−amyloid peptide, and neurofibrillary tangles, which result from the aggregation of hyperphosphorylated Tau protein.
Parkinson’s disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer’s disease with a prevalence expected to increase from around 3 million people in 2012 to more than 4 million people in 2022 in the 7MM. Parkinson’s disease is progressive, pathologically characterized by the selective loss of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons and the presence of protein aggregates, known as Lewy bodies. Clinical manifestations of Parkinson’s disease include muscle rigidity, bradykinesia, akinesia, abnormal posture and resting tremor.
Multiple sclerosis, the most common cause of non-traumatic disability in young adults, is an inflammatory demyelinating and neurodegenerative disease affecting the central nervous system, which leads to the formation of multiple foci of demyelinated lesions. The major histopathological hallmarks of multiple sclerosis are myelin destruction due to inflammatory oligodendrocyte cell damage or death in conjunction with axonal degeneration. Clinically, multiple sclerosis is manifested by episodes of neurological dysfunction, or relapses, related to the site of the lesion. The evolution of the disease is quite variable.