The interaction between glia and neurons is essential in development, function and repair of the central nervous system (CNS). In fact, signaling of glia is critical for axonal guidance and synaptogenesis at early developmental stages, whereas glial cells play a prominent role in the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases, dysmyelinating diseases, etc. In fact, under the name of glia, a number of cells are included and secretory ependymal cells of the subcommissural organ (SCO) are part of them.

Unlike lower vertebrates, human beings are unable to regenerate damaged or destroyed nervous cells. Among the therapeutic approaches to repair or to interfere with the progression of a disease, a particular attention was focused on the constituents of the extracellular matrix at the injury or degenerative site as well as compounds and proteins expressed during developmental processes which allow correct constitution of complex structures like the brain structure and the spinal cord.

In this context, SCO-spondin, a protein secreted early during the embryonic life by the specialized ependymocytes, seems an interesting candidate. In addition, this protein as well as particular deduced peptides, named NX peptides, have shown to have combined biological activities on nervous cells and in in vivo models of CNS disorders by promoting neuroprotection and neuroregeneration.